Buttered Crouton

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To incorporate air to make ingredients lighter. Sifting flour is an example of the process. Whipped butter is another. Air is whipped in, thus making the butter lighter and increase in volume.


Keeping meats and a or cheese in a controlled environment for a specific amount of time in a controlled and ventilated atmosphere to permit natural flavoring and tenderizing.

Al dente

"To the tooth," in Italian. Pasta is cooked just to a firm and chewy texture.


In French Cooking it means in the German style. Sauce Allemande is made from veal stock, cream, egg yolks and lemon juice.


Seasonings to enhance the flavor and aroma usually herbs and spices and some vegetables.


A transparent meat flavored jelly/jello that is firm when cold. Used to flavor and add moisture to pate, charcuterie and cold food preparations.

Au Jus

This is the natural pan drippings or juice that comes from a roasting pan after deglazing.


Microscopic organisms, some of which can cause sickness including food-borne infections. Others can be perfectly safe and help tenderize or even add flavor. The blue veining in cheese is an example of the "good" type.


To cook in the oven as baking a cake, but also may be used in meat cookery such as baked leg of lamb.


To brush or spoon liquid fat or juices over meat, fish poultry or vegetables during cooking to help keep moisture on the surface area.


A mixture of flour and liquid that is beaten or stirred in preparation of baking, i.e. cake batter.


Briskly whipping or stirring it with a spoon, fork, wire whisk, beater or mixer.

Beurre Noir

Heating salted butter until dark brown and foamy but not smoking. A type of butter sauce called black butter sauce.


Slicing a food crosswise at a 45-degree angle.


To thickening a sauce or hot liquid by stirring in ingredients such as roux, flour, butter, cornstarch, egg yolks, vegetable puree or cream.


A rich thick shellfish soup with cream.


Cajun-style cooking method in which highly seasoned foods are dipped in liquid butter then cooked over high heat in a super-heated heavy skillet until charred.


To partially cook vegetables by parboiling them in highly salted water then cooling quickly in ice water.


Mixing two or more ingredients together to obtain an equally distributed mixture.


To heat water or other liquids to 212 degrees Fahrenheit, 100 degrees Celsius and to keep it bubbling and shimmering in the pot.


A Mediterranean fish soup made from several varieties of fish, tomatoes, saffron, fennel and wine. 


Clear soup made from slow simmering lean meat, bones and seasonings and vegetables. Strained and served with the shredded cooked meat it was made from.

Bouquet Garni

A bundle of seasonings; bay leaf, thyme and parsley stems tied with leeks, carrot and celery stalk. It's used to season braised foods and stocks.


Meat browned in fat with vegetables, seasonings and then cooked slowly in liquid so it is partially submerged then cooked in an oven, this combines moist and dry heat cooking. Making a pot roast is an example.


To coat the food with bread crumbs. Standard method is to first dip in salted flour, then beaten egg and then bread crumbs. Items prepared like this are usually pan fried in oil or clarified butter until golden and crispy.


To cook food directly under a very hot 500 degree F. heat source.

Broth or stock

A liquid made by gently simmering meats, fish, or vegetables and/or their by-products, such as bones and trimming with herbs, in liquid, usually water. Broths usually have a higher proportion of meat to bones than stock.


A quick sautéing/searing done either at the beginning or end of meal preparation, often to enhance flavor, texture, or eye appeal.


To coat food with melted butter, glaze, or other liquid using a pastry brush.

Bundt pan

The name for a tube baking pan having fluted sides.


A frosting made from sugar, sweet butter, milk, egg yolks and flavoring. Confectioner's or powdered sugar is often used buy not required.


To cut food down the center without cutting all the way through to open and then spread it apart. Shrimp cut this way is popular. Meat may be butterflied when cooking it well done so it isn't burned during the process as if it remained thick. 

Cake pan

Round baking pan with straight sides. It comes in 8", 9" and other sizes.


Plural for squid in Italian.


Brunt sugar used for sauces, coloring, flavoring and candy.


Natural sugars turn brown when exposed to direct heat over a flame, with or without the addition of some oil to aid the process. Onions when fried in butter over high heat causes them to turn brown and have a sweet toasted flavor. Carrots in a roasting pan turn golden with a roast chicken. This process and color change from raw to cooked is carmelization.


The process of cooking sugar until it begins to color. Also, while slowly cooking some vegetables e.g. onions, root vegetables, the natural sugars are released and the vegetables will caramelize in their own sugars, usually oil is used in the pan to help the process.


A lettuce used for salad and sometimes called curly endive. Also added to coffee in the deep South.


Usually a pureed filling made light and fluffy with beaten egg whites, gelatin and or whipped cream. Lemon chiffon pie is one example.


Lettuces, sorrel, basil leaves and other leafy vegetables cut into julienne strips.


A very fine conical wire mesh strainer.  Using a chinoise removes the small impurities from the liquid that is strained.  It is a must in any professional kitchen.


To cut into irregular pieces with no set size as a result. Chopping parsley is a good example.


Parsley like herb with a basil, mint and green onion flavor, popular in Chinese and Mexican/Latin cuisine


A process of making a liquid clear by adding beaten egg whites, ground meat and tomato, then simmering slowly. The liquid is then strained and the result is consommé. Also---melting butter over medium heat so the milk solids settle to the bottom and impurities float to the top. The foamy top is discarded and pure golden liquid butter is ladled off into a clean container for other cooking uses.


Evenly covering food with flour, crumbs, herbs, oil or batter.


To cook slowly and gently in a liquid just below the boiling point. Usually eggs are coddled when making traditional Caesar salad to help them absorb and emulsify evenly with the lemon juice and olive oil. Coddled eggs for breakfast a different than poached as they relatively soft but fully heated through.


The mixing of two or more ingredients into a single mixture.


Slowly cook pieces of meat in their own gently rendered fat until very soft and tender. With seasonings, brandy/wine and sometimes vegetables. Duck and pork are two popular meats to be used in confit. When cooked and cooled the meat is keep submerged in its cooking fat as a preservative and as a seal against oxygen.


Applying to raw or cooked tomatoes: Peeled, seeded and diced/chopped fine, raw; or then sautéed with minced onions in olive oil, cooked.


To remove the inedible center of fruits such apples and pears.


To beat vegetable shortening, butter, or margarine, with or without sugar, until light and fluffy.


To create a decorative edge on a piecrust, also seal the edges together.


To restore the crunch to vegetables such as celery and lettuce. This can be done with an ice water bath. Stale crackers can be crisped in a medium oven. Also a type of a pan baked dessert made of cooked fruit with a crunchy flour and sugar topping. Apple or peach crisp are examples.


Chopped seasoned food held together by cream sauce, eggs, flour/breadcrumbs, shaped and then breaded with bread crumbs and deep fried. Crab cakes that are deep fried, not sautéed are really crab croquettes.


To reduce a food to small particles, usually using a mortar and pestle, rolling pin or bottom of a pot. To crush crackers you may place them in a double bag and roll a rolling pin over them.


To form sugar or honey syrups into crystals buy cooking it to hard crack and letting it cool on an oiled surface. The term also describes a sugar coating surrounding a fruit dipped in a egg white and granulated sugar mixture.


To cut in even pieces. May be 1/4 inch/ 1/2 inch or 1 inch. Sides must be of even size to be conceded cubed. This is a description used in dicing as an exact dice.


Custard-like pie or tart filling made with whole eggs, sugar,juice and zest of citrus the fruit, usually lemon. May also be the solidified nuggets of milk after citric acid has been added and rennet introduced. The curding process is an important stage in the cheese making process.


Separation of a milk/cream based sauce or the cooking of eggs when over cooked. Sauces look like egg drop soup when curdled.


Marinating to preserve an ingredient with salt and/or sugar and spices. Preparing gravlax, marinated salmon, is an example of curing.


A mixture of beaten egg, egg yolks, milk, and other ingredients. Which is cooked with gentle heat, often in a water bath. A custard differs from a pudding in that it isn't stirred during the cooking process.

Cut in

Working butter or vegetable shortening, margarine, into dry ingredients for equal distribution. This is done with the help of a pastry blender and is an important procedure in making flaky pie crusts.


A measure approximately equal to 1/16 teaspoon, a pinch or less.


To partially or completely submerge and cook food in hot oil until golden brown.


Adding liquid to a pan in which foods have been sautéed, fried or roasted to dissolve the caramelized juices stuck to the bottom of the pan.


To add hot or spicy ingredients such as cayenne pepper, mustard or Tabasco sauce to a food. Sauce Diable is a classic French sauce made with demi-glace and Dijon mustard.


To cut food into cubes. The cubes can be small, medium or large. Dicing is slightly less exact as cubing is but still should have uniformity.

Direct heat

A grilling method that allows food to be cooked directly over the high heat of a flame source.


To place small bits of an ingredient such as butter on foods at random intervals for the purpose of adding flavor and to aid in browning during cooking.

Double a recipe

To increase recipe amounts by two.


A combination of ingredients usually including flour, water or milk, and, sometimes, a leavener, producing a pliable mixture for making baked goods.


Completely coating in flour and shaking off the excess.


Drippings are the liquids and bits of food left in the bottom of a roasting or frying pan after meat is cooked.


Pouring a liquid such as as melted butter, olive oil or other liquid in a slow trickle over food.


Sprinkling flour on a work surface to evenly coat it, or as with spices, sugar, or bread crumbs, light coating a food item.

Egg wash

A mixture of beaten eggs, yolks, whites, or both with milk or water. Used in the standard breading process of foods. May be used to coat baked goods to give them a shine when baked. Also may be used as a sealant of pieces of dough.


A mixture of oil and liquid in which tiny globules of one are suspended in the other. Stabilizers, such as egg or mustard may be used. Classic example is vinaigrette salad dressing.


In the United States it refers to the main dish. In France it's a term that referrers to the first course of a meal, served after the soup and before the meat course. 


A strong dark coffee brewed under steam pressure. Popular in many European countries, it is the base for other coffee drinks such as Cappuccino


A boneless and skinless piece of meat cut away from the bone, usually fish.

Filet Mignon

A well trimmed center cut steak from the whole beef tenderloin.


To remove the bones from fish or meat for cooking.


To remove impurities by passing through paper, cheesecloth or chinoise.

Firm-ball stage

The point where boiling syrup dropped in cold water forms a ball that is compact yet gives slightly to the touch. 243 degrees F.


To ignite liquid that contains an alcoholic substance so that it flames.


Open tart filled with sweet or savory ingredients, i.e. a chocolate ganache flan. Second it is a Spanish dessert of baked custard covered with caramel. 


It is food garnished or cooked with spinach.


To create a decorative scalloped edge on a pie crust or pastry. Also mushrooms and vegetables are fluted to give them an attractive cut and rolled symmetric edging.


To gently combine and aerate two or more ingredients using a bottom-to-top or side-to-side motion with a spoon or spatula.


A warm creamy dish made of cheese, eggs, wine, brandy and or other items. Served warm with toasted bread cubes, vegetables or stale bread cubes in which the bread is skewered and then dipped in the hot creamy mixture before eating it.


A stew in which usually poultry is cut up, fried in butter, and then simmered in a liquid with vegetables until done.


A flat Italian style omelet that is baked and not folded.


A deep fried sweet or savory food coated or mixed in a batter. Conch fritters are popular in South Florida as Corn Fritters are popular in the Southeastern United States.


To fry thin julienne of vegetables in hot oil until crisp and slightly curly.


To cook food in hot cooking oil, usually until a crisp brown crust forms.


A chocolate filling or coating made with chocolate, egg yolks and heavy cream. Most often used as a filling for truffles and coating for cakes such as Boston Cream Pie.


A decorative piece of an edible ingredient placed as a finishing touch to dishes or drinks. A simple rose made from a radish or sprig of parsley is a garnish.


The gizzard or sand sack of poultry. It's popular to boil, skin, clean and dice these and then add them to turkey gravy for giblet gravy.


A liquid that gives an item a shiny surface. To cover a food with a shiny liquid. Melted apricot jam is a popular glaze.


Gluten is a wheat protein that gives yeast dough its characteristic elasticity and chewyness..


To shred food into fine pieces by rubbing it against a coarse surface. Grating cheese or lemon rind are 2 examples.


Food mixed together then baked until cooked, set and golden brown. Cheese or egg yolks are often and important ingredient.


A thick sauce made from pan drippings, other liquids and thickened with a starch such as a roux.


To coat a pan or skillet with a thin layer of oil.

Green Meat

Meat that has not had no aging to become tender and flavorful.


Cook directly over the heat source on metal racks or rods in the open air.


To mechanically cut a food into small pieces.

Halve a recipe

Reduce the amounts of a recipe by 50%.

Hard-ball stage

In candy making, the point at which syrup has cooked long enough to form a solid ball in cold water. Between 250-268 degrees F.


A dish made of onions, leftover meats, potatoes and seasonings. It is molded and then crisply pan-fried and served with poached eggs and or demi-glace and vegetables.

Herbes de Provence

A blend of herbs consisting of chervil, tarragon, chives, rosemary and lavender. There are many recipes for this blended used in the south of France, some may include fennel.


Corn kernels with the germ and bran removed with lye. A popular Southern United States porridge.

Hors d'Oeuvres

Small individual portions of foods, canapés, served as appetizers before a meal.


To remove the leafy and stem parts off fruits such as strawberries.


To spread frosting on a cake, cupcake or pastry. Also to cool down cooked food by placing in ice and water.


Making tea is an example. Extracting flavors by soaking them in liquid heated in a covered pan. Chefs make herbal infusions to season delicate dishes at the last minute.

Insulated baking sheet

A cookie sheet that has a two-layer bottom with a space of air between to prevent hot spots.


A process to set or solidify, usually by adding gelatin.

Jellyroll pan

A baking pan with sides about an inch high. Commonly called a sheet pan.


A dry mixture of various spices such as habenaro chilies, thyme, garlic, onions, allspice, ginger and cinnamon used to season meats such as chicken or pork, a Jamaican BBQ specialty. If made well and grilled over a wood fire you will twitch "Jerk" when eating this very spicy dish!


To cut into thin strips 1/8 inch x 1/8 inch strips or smaller, about 2-3 inches long. May be meats or vegetables.


The natural juices released by roasting meats that have collected on the bottom of the roasting pan.


To work dough with the heels of your hands in a pressing and folding motion until it becomes smooth and elastic.

Kosher salt

Salt that is coarser that regular table salt. There are several brands but Diamond Crystal is preferred by many chefs because it isn't flaked and doesn't contain magnesium sulfate.1 Tbsp. of Kosher salt equals 2 tsp. table salt in salting strength.


Inserting strips of fat into pieces of meat, helping the braised meat stays moist and juicy during cooking. This isn't used as much as it was in the earlier days of cooking.


Ingredient, (Yeast) or process (Whipping Egg Whites) that produces air bubbles and causes the rising of baked goods.


To place layers of foil, silicone paper, or wax paper in a pan to prevent sticking.


A cut of meat that typically comes from the back of the animal.


Pasta made with flour and water and then dried.


A chopped or diced mixture of several fruits or vegetables cooked or uncooked. A macedoine of vegetables may include celery, carrots, turnips, peas, mushrooms, chestnuts and pearl onions sautéed in butter.


To gently swirl or layer one food into another to create a ribbon effect when cooked and sliced. 


Liquid with is seasoned with herbs, spices and vegetables which is used to marinate food. thus enhancing flavor or tenderizing the item. More often than not marinades will contain an acid like vinegar, wine or lemon juice and sometimes an oil. The pickling process uses a marinade in the curing process.


Submerging a food in a seasoned liquid in order to tenderize and flavor the food. .


A paste of ground blanched almonds that is cooked with glucose and sugar. This paste is of the cooked almonds and sugar becomes marzipan when confectioner's sugar and egg white is added. It is used to fill and decorate pastries.


To press or mix a food to remove lumps and make a smooth mixture.


Cold sauce or dressing consisting of oil, dry mustard, sugar, vinegar and lemon juice mixed with egg yolks. Hellmann's is thought buy chefs to be the best.


Small round or oval of lightly pounded meat such as chicken, tenderloin, pork and veal.


Sweetened egg whites beaten until they are stiff, light and airy. There are 3 types---Swiss, Italian and common.


To chop or dice food into tiny, 1/8 inch or less irregular pieces.


A mixture of vegetables, 2 parts onions, 1 part celery, 1 part carrots and may also contain leeks and mushrooms in which case the amount of onions would be decreased. It's used as a seasoning and flavor enhancer for the sauce that be made from it and the pan drippings.


To stir two or more foods together until they are completely combined.


Adding only enough liquid to dry ingredients to dampen them.


A cheese that has a mild flavor and used in Italian-style recipes. This cheese is best fresh and can be found in many supermarkets in this fresh state.


Slowly heating wine, juices or cider with spices, citrus and sugar.


An European term for margarine, a stick of oleo is a stick of margarine.

Pan broil

Cooking food in a heavy bottom pan without added fat, then removing any fat as it accumulates so it doesn't burn.


Cooking in a hot pan with small amount of hot oil, butter, or other fat, turning the food over once or twice.


A cooking technique in which food is wrapped in paper or foil pouch and then baked so that the food steams in its own moisture and the pouch puffs.


Partly cooking in a boiling salted liquid as in blanching.


Boiling foods until partially cooked.


A non-stick, silicone coated, heat-resistant paper used in cooking.


To peel or trim food of its outer layer of skin, usually vegetables.


The mounds and swirls made in a mixture; egg whites that has been whipped are stiff if they stay upright, or soft if they fall over. The same applies to whipped cream.


A sauce made of fresh basil, garlic, olive oil, pine nuts, cheese and water. Modern pesto may be made with any fresh herbs and variety of ingredients as long as it isn't cooked. 

Pie pan

Round baking pan with slanted sides, it may be glass (Pyrex) or aluminum.


A small inexact measurement amount that basically add up to 1/16 of a teaspoon.


Using a pastry bag to squeeze a soft food through a decorative tip to create swirled and artful wisps of the product on to another surface.


To take out the center stone or seed of a fruit, such as a nectarine or a plum.


To simmer in liquid that is just below the boiling point. Usually about 208 degree F.

Pressure cooking

Cooking method that uses steam under a locked lid to produce high temperatures and achieve a faster cooking time.


The term used for the growth of a yeast dough's rise prior to baking.


The process of of yeast dough's growth leading to the final baking.

Punch down

For yeast-risen products. After letting the dough rise, punching it down knocks out the air before turning it out onto a floured surface for shaping.


A smooth pureed and strained liquid pulp usually slightly thick.


A small oven proof dish used for individual servings.


To restore a dried food back to its original state by adding hot or cold liquid.


To slowly or rapidly cook liquids down so that some or most of the water evaporates.


Simmering and cooking a sauce so that moisture is released in the form of steam causing the remaining ingredients to concentrate, thickening and strengthening the flavors. A reduced sauce is the result.


Pouring or sprinkling cold water or ice over cooked or raw vegetables to prevent oxidation and to retain the fresh cooked look. Raw, wilted vegetables are refreshed by sprinkling them with water.


To melt down hard fat to a liquid fat.


In bread-making, to let the dough sit a few minutes before shaping.


With yeast dough's, to leave the dough in a warm place and allow to double in volume.


A method of cooking in an oven where the item isn't covered allowing the dry heat to surround the item.

Rolling boil

Boiling water very rapidly so that stirring with a spoon does not cause it to stop boiling.


A somewhat equal cooked mixture of flour and oil, fat or butter used to thicken liquids. Most roux is made with a little more flour than fat.

Royal icing

An icing used for decorating purposes. This icing becomes solid quickly and is made with confectioner's sugar, dash of cream of tartar and lemon juice.


A small gas or electric broiler used to brown or glaze the tops of certain food items, creme brulee finished under a salamander.


A lightly thickened liquid that adds, flavor, moisture and visual appeal to foods.


To cook food quickly in a small amount of fat in a pan over regulated direct heat.


Cooking a liquid such as milk to just below the point of boiling. To loosen the skin of fruits or vegetables by dipping them in boiling water and then plunging them into ice water so they can be peeled easily.


To tenderize meat, fish or shellfish by making a number of shallow often diagonal cuts across its surface.


A scraper is a flexible piece of rubber attached to a handle and used for scraping food down the sides of a pan, bowl or jar. A spatula is used to turn food in a pan, like what is used to turn eggs over.


To quickly brown and caramelize the outside of meats at a high temperature.


To enhance the flavor of foods by adding ingredients such as salt, pepper, and a variety of other herbs, and spices. Also to treat a pan so it becomes non-stick.


A thick, lumpy mass when melted items get cold.


Let food become solid.


To cut or tear into narrow strips, either by hand or by using a grater or food processor.


Pressing items through a screen or strainer to break up the mass. It produces a lump free mixture that won't clog a pastry tip during filling.


Removing lumps from dry ingredients such as flour or confectioners' sugar by passing it through a strainer. It also aerates the item making them lighter.


Cooking food in a liquid at just below a boil point so that small bubbles begin to rise the surface.

Simple syrup

Syrup that results from cooking 2 parts water and 1 part sugar together, then using it warm or cold.


Removing the top layer of fat and impurities that rise to the top of stocks, soups, sauces, or other liquids.


A cutting shape usually meaning thin slices 1/4 inch by 1/8 inch by 1/8 inch.

Smoking Point

Temperature at which a fat begins to break down and emit smoke.

Soft ball/Soft crack

Candy making term that denote what a ball of the candy does when placed in a cup of cold water, 234-239 degrees F.

Spin a thread

Creating a thread that appears between the spoon and candy when the spoon is lifted and turned. A popular garnish on modern dessert presentations is to use these threads in a wistful manner to call attention to the pastry chef's artistic talents.

Spring form pan

A two-part spring-loaded baking pan in which a collar fits around a base, the collar is removed after baking. 


To cook over boiling water in a covered pan or to cook in a special pressurized steam compartment.


A dowel shaped tool used to hone knife blades.


To soak dry ingredients such as ground coffee, herbs, spices, etc. in liquid until the flavor is infused into it.


Browning pieces of meat, then simmering them with vegetables seasonings and enough liquid to cover them. This method produces tender well cook items.


Fast frying of small pieces of meats and vegetables over very high heat with continuous stirring in a small about of oil.


The liquid that results from simmering bones, vegetable and seasonings in water or another liquid.


A crumbly baked good topping, made by combining butter, sugar, ground nuts, spices and flour.


Cooking vegetables over low heat in a small amount of fat to release their moisture, flavor and to have them look translucent..


Reducing thickness with the addition of more liquid.


To completely combine several ingredients by mixing lightly in an upward motion.


To tie with twine to hold together a roast to maintain its shape while it cooks.

Tube pan

A round cake pan with tall, smooth sides and a metal tube in the middle. Often used for angel food cake, but an excellent all-purpose cake pan for baking batters of heavy density.


Baked goods that contain no ingredients to give them volume, such as eggs, baking powder, or yeast.


Sour juice made from under ripe grapes, it's popular as a substitute for vinegar and has a mild grapelike flavor..


Cold soup made from a puree of the white part of leeks, potatoes, onions, chicken stock, cream and chives.


An acidic sauce or dressing made with vinegar, oil, mustard and seasonings.

Water bath

A storage method in which a container is set in a pan of simmering water to keep it hot.


To quickly mix air into ingredients such as cream or egg whites by beating until light and fluffy, it also is the the utensil used in this whipping and whisking action.


Fluff by beating. The utensil used for this is also called a whisk


A thin mixture of 1/3 flour and 2/3 cold water that is used to quickly thicken soups, sauces and stocks in an emergency..


The thin outer part of the rind of citrus cut into a thin narrow strip. It contains none of the white pith on the inside of the skin.